Environment of Earth

August 12, 2008

FACTORS AFFECTING PLANT SENSTIVITY TO AIR POLLUTANTS

Filed under: Air pollution,Environment — gargpk @ 12:58 pm
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Pollutant

Factor

Sensitivity

Comment

C2H4 pollution

Tissue age

Epinasty in immature leaves. Other symptoms on oldest leaves first.

Tissues with high natural C2H4 are more sensitive.

C2H4 pollution

High temperature

Sensitivity increased

C2H4 pollution

Other pollutants

Effects inhibited by high levels of SO2 or CO2

Cl2 pollution

Bright sunshine

Sensitivity increased

Cl2 pollution

Tissue age

Little effect; in conifers, current year’s needles most sensitive

Immature leaves tolerant in some species.

Cl2 pollution

Wet leaves

No effect

Cl2 pollution

Drought

Sensitivity decreased

Cl2 pollution

Low temperature

Sensitivity decreased in pines

Symptoms take longer to develop.

Cl2 pollution

Plat age

Seedling less sensitive than oleder plants

HCl pollution

Tissue age

Young, fully expanded leaves most sensitive

Immature leaves tolerant.

HCl pollution

Plant age

Seedlings less sensitive than mature plants

Older plants become more tolerant.

HCl pollution

High relat. Humidity

Sensitivity increased

HCl pollution

Ca-deficit

Sensitivity decreased

Effect shown for Nasturtium. May be different for other species.

HCl pollution

Ca-excess

Sensitivity increased

Effect shown for Nasturtium. May be different for other species.

HCl pollution

Cl-deficit

Sensitivity increased

Effect shown for Nasturtium. May be different for other species.

HCl pollution

Cl-excess

Sensitivity increased

Effect shown for Nasturtium. May be different for other species.

HCl pollution

Mg-deficit

Sensitivity increased

NH3 pollution

Concentration

Variable

Some conifers sensitive at moderate but tolerant at high levels.

NH3 pollution

Tissue age

Little effect

NH3 pollution

Darkness

Variable

NH3 pollution

Drought

Sensitivity decreased

NH3 pollution

Wet leaves

Sensitivity increased

Symptoms develop faster.

NOx pollution

Ca-excess

Sensitivity decreased

Opposite effect in some species.

NOx pollution

Tissue age

Immature leaves/needles most sensitive

NOx pollution

Cultivar

Highly variable; especially in gladiolus & tomato

In gladiolus, sensitivity related to flower colour

NOx pollution

High relat. humidity

Sensitivity increased

NOx pollution

Low temperature

Sensitivity decreased; symptom expression delayed

NOx pollution

Drought

Sensitivity decreased; symptoms induced in conifers needles previously exposed.

Sensitivity increased in some fruit trees.

NOx pollution

N-deficit

Sensitivity decreased

Opposite effect in some species.

NOx pollution

Ca-deficit

Sensitivity decreased

Opposite effect in some species.

NOx pollution

N-excess

Sensitivity decreased

Opposite effect in some species.

NOx pollution

P-excess

Sensitivity increased

Opposite effect in some species.

NOx pollution

Other pollutants

Interaction with SO2, NO2, O2 & hydrocarbons

Response varies with concentrations and relative proportions.

NOx pollution

K-deficit

Sensitivity increased

Opposite effect in some species.

O3 pollution

K-excess

Variable sensitivity

O3 pollution

N-excess

Variable sensitivity

O3 pollution

Plant age

Young plants most sensitive

O3 pollution

Tissue age

Intermediate leaves usually most sensitive

O3 pollution

Darkness

Sensitivity decreased

Plants grown in low light are more sensitive. High light during exposure increases injury.

O3 pollution

Wet leaves

Variable sensitivity

O3 pollution

Drought

Sensitivity decreased

O3 pollution

Other pollutants

Interactions with SO2, NO2, PAN & heavy metals

Response varies with species, concentration & relative proportions

O3 pollution

High soil salinity

Sensitivity decreased

O3 pollution

High relat. Humidity

Sensitivity increased

O3 pollution

S-excess

Sensitivity decreased

O3 pollution

N-deficit

Variable sensitivity

O3 pollution

P-deficit

Sensitivity decreased

O3 pollution

Low temperature

Sensitivity decreased

Sensitivity decreases again above 30 degree C. Response varies according to dose.

O3 pollution

K-deficit

Variable sensitivity

PAN pollution

High relat. Humidity

No effect

PAN pollution

Tissue age

Young, rapidly expanding leaves most sensitive

Sensitivity strongly affected by physiological age, results in bands of damage.

PAN pollution

Other pollutants

Interactions with O3 & SO2

Response varies with concentrations & pollutant.

PAN pollution

Drought

Sensitivity decreased

PAN pollution

Time of day

Sensitivity more in morning than after noon

PAN pollution

Darkness

Injury eliminated. Sensitivity increases with increased light intensity

Presence of light before, during and after exposure must for injury to occur.

PAN pollution

Low temperature

Injury decreased

PAN pollution

Plant age

Young plants more sensitive

SO2 pollution

Other pollutant

Interaction with O3, NO2, HF

Response varies with concentrations and relative proportions.

SO2 pollution

Time of day

More sensitivity when sugar content low

In many plants in the morning.

SO2 pollution

High relat. Humidity

Sensitivity increased

SO2 pollution

Drought

Sensitivity decreased

SO2 pollution

High wind

Sensitivity increased

SO2 pollution

Wet leaves

Variable; may increase

SO2 pollution

Darkness

Sensitivity decreased

Some plants e.g. Potato not closing stomata at night may be unaffected.

SO2 pollution

Low temperature

Sensitivity decreased

Susceptibility to frost injury increased by SO2 exposure

SO2 pollution

Plant age

Seedlings more sensitive than older plants

SO2 pollution

Season

Grasses more sensitive in winter; conifers more in April/May than in July/August

Not vry important for very short exposures.

SO2 pollution

N-deficit

Sensitivity decreased

SO2 pollution

S-deficit

Sensitivity decreased

SO2 pollution

P-deficit

Sensitivity decreased

SO2 pollution

N-excess

Sensitivity decreased

SO2 pollution

K-deficit

Sensitivity increased

SO2 pollution

S-excess

Sensitivity increased

SO2 pollution

Tissue age

Most in young, fully expanded leaves

SO2 pollution

Ca-deficit

Sensitivity increased

MINIMUM EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTANTS FOR PLANT INJURY

Filed under: Environment — gargpk @ 9:28 am
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Plant name Pollutant
ppm hours tolerance
Alder HCl 6.00 4.00 Middle
Aster HCl 9.00 0.40 Low
Barley HCl 7.00 0.40 Very low
Bean HCl 4.00 0.40 Very low
Beech HCl 1000.00 1.00 Very high
Cherry HCl 9.00 4.00 High
Chrysanthemum HCl 9.00 3.00 High
Cornflower HCl 20.00 0.40 Middle
Cosmos HCl 9.00 0.40 Low
Douglas fir HCl 10.00 4.00 High
Marigold HCl 9.00 0.40 Low
Nasturtium HCl 9.00 0.40 Low
Norway maple HCl 7.00 4.00 High
Norway spruce HCl 19.00 4.00 Very high
Oak HCl 1000.00 1.00 Very high
Tomato HCl 5.00 2.00 Low
Tulip tree HCl 3.00 4.00 Low
Weymouth pine HCl 8.00 4.00 High
Zinnia HCl 9.00 0.40 Low
Annual poa NH3 12.00 4.00 Middle
Buckwheat NH3 16.60 4.00 Middle
Chickweed NH3 12.00 4.00 Middle
Dandelion NH3 12.00 4.00 Middle
Apple SO2 0.40 6.00 Middle
Aspen SO2 0.40 3.00 Middle
Barley SO2 1.30 1.00 Very low
Bean SO2 0.80 3.00 Low
Begonia SO2 0.30 1.00 Very low
Broad bean SO2 2.00 4.00 High
Broccoli SO2 0.30 4.00 Low
Buckwheat SO2 0.70 1.00 Very low
Cabbage SO2 1.00 4.00 Low
Chrysanthemum SO2 2.50 3.00 Very high
Cocksfoot SO2 3.10 6.00 Very high
Cucumber SO2 0.80 4.00 Low
Dandelion SO2 2.00 4.00 High
Douglas fir SO2 0.70 4.50 Middle
French marigold SO2 2.00 2.00 High
Geranium SO2 2.00 2.00 High
Ginkgo SO2 2.80 3.00 Very high
Gladiolus SO2 0.50 8.00 Middle
Iris SO2 0.50 8.00 Middle
Italian ryegrass SO2 1.90 6.00 High
Larch SO2 0.30 8.00 Low
Lettuce SO2 1.00 2.00 Low
Locust tree SO2 2.00 4.00 High
Lucerne SO2 0.10 4.00 Low
Lilac SO2 0.30 6.00 Middle
Tomato NH3 8.30 5.00 Low
White clover NH3 100.00 0.10 Middle
African marigold C2H4 0.01 20.00 Low
Cattleya orchid C2H4 0.00 24.00 Very low
Aspen O3 0.15 2.00 Low
Bean O3 0.06 8.00 Low
Begonia O3 0.13 3.00 Low
Bindweed O3 0.20 4.00 Low
Apple C2H4 0.01 48.00 Middle
Buckwheat C2H4 0.05 48.00 Middle
Carnation C2H4 0.10 6.00 Low
Chrysanthemum C2H4 1.00 9.00 High
Cucumber C2H4 100.00 6.00 Very high
Fat hen C2H4 0.05 48.00 Middle
Forsythia C2H4 0.70 20.00 High
Narcissus C2H4 0.40 1.00 Very low
Pepper C2H4 0.10 8.00 Low
Rose C2H4 10.00 24.00 Very high
Snapdragon C2H4 0.50 1.00 Very low
Strawberry C2H4 1.00 24.00 High
Sunflower C2H4 0.05 48.00 Middle
Tomato C2H4 1.00 24.00 Middle
Tulip C2H4 0.40 1.00 Very low
Norway maple SO2 2.50 3.00 High
Oats SO2 1.00 1.00 Low
Onion SO2 1.00 4.00 Low
Pea SO2 1.00 1.00 Low
Petunia SO2 2.00 4.00 High
Pine SO2 0.30 2.00 Low
Plantain SO2 0.80 6.00 Middle
Poplar SO2 2.00 4.00 High
Potato SO2 4.20 1.00 Middle
Radish SO2 0.50 1.00 Low
Red fescue SO2 1.20 6.00 Middle
Rose SO2 0.70 6.00 Middle
Rye SO2 0.70 3.00 Low
Ryegrass SO2 1.00 6.00 Low
Fat hen NH3 12.00 4.00 Middle
Lettuce NH3 2.00 24.00 Low
Ryegrass NH3 100.00 0.20 Middle
Smooth-stalk meadow grass NH3 12.00 4.00 Middle
Silver birch SO2 0.90 2.00 Low
Smooth-stalk meadow grass SO2 0.20 2.00 Low
Snapdragon SO2 4.00 2.00 High
Spruce SO2 3.00 6.00 Very high
Spinach SO2 1.00 4.00 Low
Sweet pea SO2 0.80 3.00 Low
Swiss chard SO2 1.00 1.00 Low
Timothy SO2 0.80 1.00 Low
Tomato SO2 0.50 4.00 Low
Turnip SO2 1.00 2.00 Low
Wheat SO2 0.80 1.00 Low
Annual poa HF 0.10 4.00 Low
Apple HF 0.40 4.50 Middle
Azalea HF 0.10 48.00 High
Bean HF 0.70 2.30 Middle
Buckwheat HF 0.70 2.30 Middle
Celery HF 0.10 48.00 High
Chickweed HF 0.10 4.00 Low
Corn HF 0.10 4.00 Low
Dandelion HF 0.10 4.00 Low
Dock HF 0.50 8.00 High
Fat hen HF 0.10 4.00 Low
Gladiolus HF 0.06 6.00 Very low
Iris HF 0.50 8.00 High
Lucerne HF 0.10 48.00 High
Nettle-leaved goosefoot HF 0.10 4.00 Low
Norway spruce HF 0.20 5.80 Low
Pine HF 0.07 4.00 Very low
Polygonum HF 0.50 8.00 High
Rose HF 0.50 8.00 High
Smoot-stalk meadow grass HF 0.10 4.00 Low
Sunflower HF 0.10 4.00 Low
Tomato HF 0.30 3.00 Low
Tulip HF 0.50 8.00 High
Azalea Nox 13.00 1.00 Middle
Awnless brome Nox 4.00 0.50 Very low
Bean Nox 6.00 2.00 Low
Beet Nox 30.00 1.00 High
Begonia Nox 16.00 0.50 Middle
Broccoli Nox 16.00 0.50 Middle
Buckwheat Nox 4.00 4.00 Low
Chrysanthemum Nox 4.00 0.50 Very low
Corn Nox 4.00 0.50 Very low
Cocksfoot Nox 4.70 6.00 Low
Cucumber Nox 6.00 2.00 Low
Erica heather Nox 1000.00 1.00 Very high
Sunflower NH3 3.00 4.00 Very low
Italian ryegrass Nox 4.70 6.00 Low
Lettuce Nox 30.00 1.00 High
Lucerne Nox 6.00 8.00 Low
Oats Nox 4.00 0.50 Very low
Pea Nox 6.00 4.00 Low
Plantain Nox 3.30 6.00 Low
Potato Nox 30.00 1.00 High
Radish Nox 4.00 0.50 Very low
Rape Nox 30.00 1.00 High
Rye Nox 30.00 1.00 High
Ryegrass Nox 4.70 6.00 Low
Red fescue Nox 4.70 6.00 Low
Smooth-stalk meadow grass Nox 4.70 6.00 Low
Spinach Nox 6.00 2.00 Low
Swiss chard Nox 1.00 1.00 Very low
Timothy Nox 4.70 6.00 Low
Tomato Nox 8.00 1.00 Low
Wheat Nox 5.00 0.50 Very low
Azalea Cl2 0.80 4.00 Low
Azalea Cl2 0.80 4.00 Middle
Bean Cl2 1.30 0.50 Low
Begonia Cl2 1.00 4.00 High
Buckwheat Cl2 0.50 1.00 Low
Carnation Cl2 0.50 4.00 Middle
Clover Cl2 35.00 2.00 Middle
Corn Cl2 0.10 4.00 Very low
Cucumber Cl2 0.50 4.00 Middle
Dahlia Cl2 0.50 4.00 Middle
Dandelion Cl2 0.50 4.00 Middle
Fat hen Cl2 1.00 4.00 High
Geranium Cl2 0.80 4.00 High
Lucerne Cl2 0.10 2.00 Very low
Maple Cl2 0.10 4.00 Very low
Nasturtium Cl2 0.50 4.00 Middle
Onion Cl2 0.80 4.00 High
Petunia Cl2 0.10 4.00 Very low
Pine Cl2 1.00 3.00 High
Polygonum Cl2 1.00 4.00 High
Radish Cl2 0.10 2.00 Very low
Rose Cl2 1.00 0.50 Low
Ryegrass Cl2 35.00 0.20 Middle
Squash Cl2 0.80 4.00 High
Sunflower Cl2 0.10 2.00 Very low
Tomato Cl2 0.50 4.00 Middle
Zinnia Cl2 0.10 4.00 Low
Buttercup O3 0.20 4.00 Low
Chrysanthemum O3 0.26 3.00 Low
Corn O3 0.10 2.00 Low
Corsican pine O3 0.25 4.00 Low
European larch O3 0.25 4.00 Low
Grape O3 0.40 4.00 Middle
Lettuce O3 0.15 2.00 Low
Lucerne O3 0.15 4.00 Low
Oats O3 0.10 2.00 Very low
Pea O3 0.10 2.00 Very low
Poplar O3 0.18 4.00 Low
Radish O3 0.08 2.00 Very low
Red clover O3 0.15 4.00 Low
Scots pine O3 0.25 8.00 Middle
Smooth-stalk meadow grass O3 0.10 17.50 Very high
Spinach O3 0.13 3.00 Low
Tobacco O3 0.05 5.00 Very low
Common vetch O3 0.20 4.00 Low
Weymouth pine O3 0.07 4.00 Very low
Wheat O3 0.23 3.00 Low
White clover O3 0.15 4.00 Low
Bean PAN 0.05 4.00 Low
Petunia PAN 0.01 8.00 Low
Tomato PAN 0.01 4.00 Low
Lettuce PAN 0.05 12.00 High
Small nettle PAN 0.05 35.00 Very high
Annual poa PAN 0.05 42.00 Very high
Phalaenopsis orchid C2H4 0.00 24.00 Very low