Environment of Earth

August 12, 2008

FACTORS AFFECTING PLANT SENSTIVITY TO AIR POLLUTANTS

Filed under: Air pollution,Environment — gargpk @ 12:58 pm
Tags: ,

Pollutant

Factor

Sensitivity

Comment

C2H4 pollution

Tissue age

Epinasty in immature leaves. Other symptoms on oldest leaves first.

Tissues with high natural C2H4 are more sensitive.

C2H4 pollution

High temperature

Sensitivity increased

C2H4 pollution

Other pollutants

Effects inhibited by high levels of SO2 or CO2

Cl2 pollution

Bright sunshine

Sensitivity increased

Cl2 pollution

Tissue age

Little effect; in conifers, current year’s needles most sensitive

Immature leaves tolerant in some species.

Cl2 pollution

Wet leaves

No effect

Cl2 pollution

Drought

Sensitivity decreased

Cl2 pollution

Low temperature

Sensitivity decreased in pines

Symptoms take longer to develop.

Cl2 pollution

Plat age

Seedling less sensitive than oleder plants

HCl pollution

Tissue age

Young, fully expanded leaves most sensitive

Immature leaves tolerant.

HCl pollution

Plant age

Seedlings less sensitive than mature plants

Older plants become more tolerant.

HCl pollution

High relat. Humidity

Sensitivity increased

HCl pollution

Ca-deficit

Sensitivity decreased

Effect shown for Nasturtium. May be different for other species.

HCl pollution

Ca-excess

Sensitivity increased

Effect shown for Nasturtium. May be different for other species.

HCl pollution

Cl-deficit

Sensitivity increased

Effect shown for Nasturtium. May be different for other species.

HCl pollution

Cl-excess

Sensitivity increased

Effect shown for Nasturtium. May be different for other species.

HCl pollution

Mg-deficit

Sensitivity increased

NH3 pollution

Concentration

Variable

Some conifers sensitive at moderate but tolerant at high levels.

NH3 pollution

Tissue age

Little effect

NH3 pollution

Darkness

Variable

NH3 pollution

Drought

Sensitivity decreased

NH3 pollution

Wet leaves

Sensitivity increased

Symptoms develop faster.

NOx pollution

Ca-excess

Sensitivity decreased

Opposite effect in some species.

NOx pollution

Tissue age

Immature leaves/needles most sensitive

NOx pollution

Cultivar

Highly variable; especially in gladiolus & tomato

In gladiolus, sensitivity related to flower colour

NOx pollution

High relat. humidity

Sensitivity increased

NOx pollution

Low temperature

Sensitivity decreased; symptom expression delayed

NOx pollution

Drought

Sensitivity decreased; symptoms induced in conifers needles previously exposed.

Sensitivity increased in some fruit trees.

NOx pollution

N-deficit

Sensitivity decreased

Opposite effect in some species.

NOx pollution

Ca-deficit

Sensitivity decreased

Opposite effect in some species.

NOx pollution

N-excess

Sensitivity decreased

Opposite effect in some species.

NOx pollution

P-excess

Sensitivity increased

Opposite effect in some species.

NOx pollution

Other pollutants

Interaction with SO2, NO2, O2 & hydrocarbons

Response varies with concentrations and relative proportions.

NOx pollution

K-deficit

Sensitivity increased

Opposite effect in some species.

O3 pollution

K-excess

Variable sensitivity

O3 pollution

N-excess

Variable sensitivity

O3 pollution

Plant age

Young plants most sensitive

O3 pollution

Tissue age

Intermediate leaves usually most sensitive

O3 pollution

Darkness

Sensitivity decreased

Plants grown in low light are more sensitive. High light during exposure increases injury.

O3 pollution

Wet leaves

Variable sensitivity

O3 pollution

Drought

Sensitivity decreased

O3 pollution

Other pollutants

Interactions with SO2, NO2, PAN & heavy metals

Response varies with species, concentration & relative proportions

O3 pollution

High soil salinity

Sensitivity decreased

O3 pollution

High relat. Humidity

Sensitivity increased

O3 pollution

S-excess

Sensitivity decreased

O3 pollution

N-deficit

Variable sensitivity

O3 pollution

P-deficit

Sensitivity decreased

O3 pollution

Low temperature

Sensitivity decreased

Sensitivity decreases again above 30 degree C. Response varies according to dose.

O3 pollution

K-deficit

Variable sensitivity

PAN pollution

High relat. Humidity

No effect

PAN pollution

Tissue age

Young, rapidly expanding leaves most sensitive

Sensitivity strongly affected by physiological age, results in bands of damage.

PAN pollution

Other pollutants

Interactions with O3 & SO2

Response varies with concentrations & pollutant.

PAN pollution

Drought

Sensitivity decreased

PAN pollution

Time of day

Sensitivity more in morning than after noon

PAN pollution

Darkness

Injury eliminated. Sensitivity increases with increased light intensity

Presence of light before, during and after exposure must for injury to occur.

PAN pollution

Low temperature

Injury decreased

PAN pollution

Plant age

Young plants more sensitive

SO2 pollution

Other pollutant

Interaction with O3, NO2, HF

Response varies with concentrations and relative proportions.

SO2 pollution

Time of day

More sensitivity when sugar content low

In many plants in the morning.

SO2 pollution

High relat. Humidity

Sensitivity increased

SO2 pollution

Drought

Sensitivity decreased

SO2 pollution

High wind

Sensitivity increased

SO2 pollution

Wet leaves

Variable; may increase

SO2 pollution

Darkness

Sensitivity decreased

Some plants e.g. Potato not closing stomata at night may be unaffected.

SO2 pollution

Low temperature

Sensitivity decreased

Susceptibility to frost injury increased by SO2 exposure

SO2 pollution

Plant age

Seedlings more sensitive than older plants

SO2 pollution

Season

Grasses more sensitive in winter; conifers more in April/May than in July/August

Not vry important for very short exposures.

SO2 pollution

N-deficit

Sensitivity decreased

SO2 pollution

S-deficit

Sensitivity decreased

SO2 pollution

P-deficit

Sensitivity decreased

SO2 pollution

N-excess

Sensitivity decreased

SO2 pollution

K-deficit

Sensitivity increased

SO2 pollution

S-excess

Sensitivity increased

SO2 pollution

Tissue age

Most in young, fully expanded leaves

SO2 pollution

Ca-deficit

Sensitivity increased

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