Environment of Earth

August 12, 2008

AIR POLLUTANTS AND PLANT RESPONSES

Filed under: Environment — gargpk @ 9:14 am
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Cause Common name Botanical name Plant part Symptom
Acid mist pollution Begonia Begonia sp. Leaf Necrotic spots on upper surface at point of contact
Swiss chard Beta vulgaris var. cicla Leaf Shot holing
Boron pollution Honeysuckle Lonicera periclymenum Leaf Brown marginal necrosis; interveinal necrosis; cupping & distortion
Norway maple Acer platanoides Leaf Brown marginal necrosis; interveinal necrosis;necrotic stipple; abscission
Silver maple Acer saccharinum Leaf Brown marginal necrosis, interveinal necrosis; cupping & distortion
Spiraea Spiraea sp. Leaf Abscission
Br2 pollution Bean Phaseolus vulgaris Leaf Marginal necrosis
Beech Fagus sylvatica Leaf Black spots, later whole leaf black/brown
Corn Zea mays Leaf Yellow tip, later necrotic
Dahlia Dahlia pinnata Leaf Brown discolouration; marginal necrosis
Fir Abies sp. Needle Red/brown discolouration, later grey/brown
Larch Larix decidua Needle Yellow/white tip
Pea Pisum sativum Leaf Marginal necrosis
Pea Pisum sativum Tendril Necrosis
Rose Rosa sp. Leaf Brown discolouration
Rye Secale cereale Leaf Yellow tip, later necrotic
C2H4 pollution Apple Malus sylvestris Flower Intumescence formation
Apple Malus sylvestris Bark Hypertrphy, especially around lenticels
Azalea Rhododendron sp. Flower Necrosis
Beet Beta vulgaris Old leaf Red/purple discolouration
Carnation Dianthus caryophyllus Flower Closing of flowers; ‘sleepiness’
Cattleya orchid Cattleya sp. Sepal Drying/bleaching from tip to base
Cucumber Cucumis sativus Flower Conversion of male into female
Daffodil Narcissus pseudonarcissus Leaf Inwards roll, curl or twist
Hibiscus Hibiscus sp. Stem Hypertrophy of lenticels
Hyacinth Hyacinthus sp. Flower Delayed opening; abnormal colour
Hyacinth Hyacinthus sp. Leaf Inwards roll, curl or twist; abscission
Lettuce Lectuca sativa Young leaf Dark green colouration
Lilac Syringa vulgaris Bark Hypertrphy, especially around lenticels
Lily Lilium sp. Leaf Inwards roll, curl or twist; abscission
Marigold Tagetus sp. Stem Root induction
Pea Pisum sativum Young leaf Dark green colouration
Petunia Petunia hybrida Flower Flowering inhibition
Phalaenopsis orchid Phalaenopsis sp. Sepal Drying/bleaching from tip to base
Poplar Populus sp. Bark Hypertrphy, especially around lenticels
Radish Raphanus sativus Old leaf Red/purple discolouration
Radish Raphanus sativus Young leaf Dark green colouration
Rose Rosa sp. Flower Premature opening
Rose Rosa sp. Old leaf Chlorosis, later necrosis
Rose Rosa sp. Young leaf Dark green colouration
Snapdragon Antirrhinum majas Flower Loss of petals
Tomato Lycopersicum esculentum Stem Root induction
Tulip Tulipa gesneriana Leaf Inwards roll, curl or twist; abscission
Tulip Tulipa gesneriana New leaf Continued folding
Willow Salix sp. Bark Hypertrphy, especially around lenticels
Wych elm Ulmus glabra Bark Loss of bark
Cement pollution Bean Phaseolus vulgaris Leaf Margin rolling; interveinal necrosis; growth inhibition
Oats Avena sativa Leaf Yellow spots
Cl2 pollution Apple Malus sylvestris Leaf Abscission; marginal necrosis
Azalea Rhododendron sp. Leaf Necrotic margins
Barberry Berberis vulgaris Leaf Marginal cholrosis
Cherry Prunus avium Leaf Necrotic stipple; abscission
Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum sp. Leaf Necrotic stipple
Dahlia Dahlia pinnata Leaf Black marginal discolouration
Dandelion Taraxacum officinale Leaf Red discolouration
Douglas fir Pseudotsuga menziesii Needle Necrosis
Fir Abies sp. Needle Red/brown necrosis; narrow band of necrotic stipple between necrotic and healthy tissue
Ginkgo Ginkgo biloba Leaf Necrotic stipple
Hibiscus Hibiscus sp. Leaf Marginal cholrosis
Horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum Leaf White stipple
Horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum Leaf Marginal necrosis
Larch Larix decidua Needle Chlorotic mottle
Lettuce Lectuca sativa Leaf Necrotic margins; bronzing of lower surface
Lucerne (alfalfa) Medicago sativa Leaf Necrotic margins
Oak Quercus rubur (Q. pedunculata) Leaf Necrotic stipple; bronzing
Onion Allium cepa Leaf Tip necrosis
Pear Pyrus communis Leaf Black necrosis
Peony Paeonia sp. Leaf Necrotic margins
Pine Pinus sp. Needle Dull grey/green, later necrotic; orange necrosis; chlorotic mottle; narrow band of necrotic stipple between necrotic and healthy tissue
Plum Prunus domestica Leaf Necrotic stipple; marginal necrosis
Rhododendron Rhododendron Leaf Dark stipple, more on upper surface
Rose Rosa sp. Leaf Dark stipple, more on upper surface
Spruce Picea sp. Needle Red/brown necrosis; narrow band of necrotic stipple between necrotic and healthy tissue
Squash Cucurbita Leaf Cupping
Sycamore Acer pseudoplatanus Leaf Marginal necrosis
Sycamore Acer pseudoplatanus Leaf Black necrosis
Tomato Lycopersicum esculentum Leaf Cupping; epinasty
Tulip Tulipa gesneriana Leaf Bleached lower surface
Wych elm Ulmus glabra Leaf Marginal necrosis
Yew Taxus baccata Needle Black necorsis
Fluoride pollution Apple Malus sylvestris Leaf Interveinal necrotic stipple; red/brown necrosis
Bilberry Vaccinium sp. Leaf Red tip & margin discolouration
Buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum Leaf Leaf cupping
Cherry Prunus avium Fruit Necrosis of stylar end
Colorado spruce Picea pungens Young needle Purple necrosis
Corn Zea mays Leaf Marginal chlorotic mottle; necrotic stipple, later necrotic streaks
Cyclamen Cyclamen Sepals & petals Marginal necrosis
Dahlia Dahlia pinnata Leaf Black necrosis
Dandelion Taraxacum officinale Leaf Ivory necrosis
Gladiolus Gladiolus sp. Leaf Glazed upper surface; red/brown necrosis
Lilac Syringa vulgaris Leaf Necrotic bands; red margin discolouration
Lucerne (alfalfa) Medicago sativa Leaf Marginal necrosis
Oats Avena sativa Leaf Ivory necrosis
Peach Prunus persica Fruit Premature ripening & suture rotting
Pear Pyrus communis Fruit Necrosis of stylar end
Petunia Petunia hybrida Sepals & petals Marginal necrosis
Pine Pinus sp. Young needle Reddish necrotic bands
Poplar Populus sp. Leaf Ivory necrosis; tip notching
St. Johns Wort Hypericum perforatum Leaf Red/brown necrosis
Sunflower Helianthus annuus Leaf Brown necrosis
Tomato Lycopersicum esculentum Leaf Edge curling; ivory necrosis
Tulip Tulipa gesneriana Leaf Glazed upper surface
Wheat Triticum vulgare Leaf Bleached tip; ivory necrosis
H2S pollution Aster Callistephus chinensis Flower Necrosis of bracts
Buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum Leaf Upward rolling
Sunflower Helianthus annuus Leaf Distortion; orange interveinal necrosis
HCl pollution Aspen Populus tremula Leaf Chlorotic mottle
Aster Callistephus chinensis Leaf Bronzing/glazing of lower surface
Bean Phaseolus vulgaris Leaf Ivory necrosis; bronzing/glazing of lower surface; upward curling or rolling
Beech Fagus sylvatica Leaf Interveinal bleaching; necrotic stipple
Cherry Prunus avium Leaf Chlorotic mottle
Cornflower Centaurea cyanus Leaf Necrotic stipple; upward curling or rolling
Cosmos Cosmos bipinnatus Sepal Tip burn
Cosmos Cosmos bipinnatus Leaf Upward curling or rolling
Cosmos Cosmos bipinnatus Petal Discolouration
Dahlia Dahlia pinnata Leaf Black marginal discolourationg; black necrosis
Maple Acer sp. Leaf Necrotic stipple
Marigold Tagetus sp. Sepal Tip burn
Nasturtium Tropeolum majas Leaf Necrotic stipple; bleaching
Oak Quercus rubur (Q. pedunculata) Leaf Interveinal bleaching
Pear Pyrus communis Leaf Marginal necrosis
Rose Rosa sp. Leaf Black marginal discolourationg; marginal necrosis
Silver birch Betula pendula Leaf Marginal necrosis
Tomato Lycopersicum esculentum Leaf Bronzing/glazing of lower surface; bifacial bronzing, later necrotic
Zinnia Zinnia angustifolia Leaf Bronzing/glazing of lower surface; upward curling or rolling
Zinnia Zinnia angustifolia Petal Necrotic stipple
Hg pollution Privet Ligustrum sp. Leaf Browning of interveinal tissue
Rose Rosa sp. Petal Colour loss, later brown at margins
Rose Rosa sp. Stamen/pistil Black
Rose Rosa sp. Bud Remain closed, later necrosis
Rose Rosa sp. Peduncle Brown/black
Rose Rosa sp. Flower Abscission
NH3 pollution Apple Malus sylvestris Fruit Purple/black/brown discolouration around lenticels
Azalea Rhododendron sp. Leaf Brown/black necrosis
Azalea Rhododendron sp. Flower Brown & white marks on white and red flowers respectively
Barley Hordeum vulgare Leaf Bleaching
Bean Phaseolus vulgaris Leaf Red discolouration; red/brown/purple margins of necrotic areas
Beech Fagus sylvatica Leaf Bronzing/glazing of upper surface
Broad bean Vicia faba Leaf Yellow discolouration; later black
Buttercup Ranunculus sp. Leaf Yellow discolouration; later black
Carrot Daucus carota Leaf Brown/black necrosis
Cauliflower Brassica oleracea var. botrytis Leaf Ivory necrosis; black spots on lower surface
Celery Apium graveolens Leaf Red discolouration
Clover Trifolium sp. Leaf Red/brown/purple margins of necrotic areas
Cocksfoot Dactylis glomerata Leaf Ivory necrosis
Cotoneaster Cotoneaster sp. Leaf Yellow discolouration
Dandelion Taraxacum officinale Leaf Brown/black necrosis; red discolouration
Forsythia Forsythia intermedia Leaf Dark pigmented spots spreading & coalescing untill leaf becomes dark green/brown/black
Gladiolus Gladiolus sp. Leaf Ivory necrosis
Hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Twig Dieback
Horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum Leaf Dark pigmented spots spreading & coalescing untill leaf becomes dark green/brown/black
Iris Iris sp. Leaf Yellow discolouration
Leek Allium porrum Leaf Glazing; ivory necrosis
Onion Allium cepa Leaf Glazing; ivory necrosis
Parsley Petroselinum crispum Leaf Ivory necrosis
Pea Pisum sativum Leaf Purple/black/brown discolouration around lenticels
Pear Pyrus communis Leaf Dark pigmented spots spreading & coalescing untill leaf becomes dark green/brown/black
Poplar Populus sp. Leaf Bronzing/glazing of upper surface
Potato Solanum tuberosum Leaf Ivory necrosis
Rhubarb Rheum rhaponticum Leaf Red/brown/purple margins of necrotic areas; reddish necrosis
Rye Secale cereale Leaf Reddish necrosis
Sorrel Rumex acetosa Leaf Red/brown/purple margins of necrotic areas
Sprouts Brassica oleracea var. gemisera Leaf Black spots on lower surface
Spruce Picea sp. Young needle Red/yellow discolouration
Spruce Picea sp. Needle Pale green, becoming white and then red
Stinging nettle Urtica dioica Leaf Brown/black necrosis
Strawberry Fragaria vesca Leaf Red discolouration
Sycamore Acer pseudoplatanus Leaf Dark pigmented spots spreading & coalescing untill leaf becomes dark green/brown/black; yellow discolouration
Wheat Triticum vulgare Leaf Ivory necrosis
Willow Salix sp. Leaf Bronzing/glazing of upper surface
Nox pollution Alder Alnus glutinosa Leaf Red/brown necrosis
Annual poa Poa annua Leaf Glazing
Apple Malus sylvestris Leaf Red/brown necrosis
Apple Malus sylvestris Leaf Herringbone necrosis
Aspen Populus tremula Leaf Ivory necrosis, often with dark brown border
Aster Callistephus chinensis Leaf Orange/brown necrosis
Azalea Rhododendron sp. Leaf Orange/brown necrosis
Barley Hordeum vulgare Awn Tip necrosis
Bean Phaseolus vulgaris Leaf Marginal necrosis
Beech Fagus sylvatica Leaf Red/brown necrosis
Beech Fagus sylvatica Leaf Herringbone necrosis
Begonia Begonia sp. Leaf Shot holing with coloured margin
Cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata Leaf Necrotic stipple; bronzing/glazing
Carnation Dianthus caryophyllus Leaf Tip necrosis
Carrot Daucus carota Leaf Tip necrosis
Clover Trifolium sp. Leaf Marginal necrosis
Cocksfoot Dactylis glomerata Leaf Yellow/orange necrosis
Dahlia Dahlia pinnata Leaf Orange/brown necrosis
Fir Abies sp. Old needle Abscission after several months; sharp red/brown band between necrotic and healthy tissue
Gooseberry Ribes uva-crispa Leaf Tip necrosis
Hazel Corylus avellana Leaf Ivory necrosis, often with dark brown border; herringbone necrosis
Kohlrabi Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes Leaf Necrotic stipple
Larch Larix decidua Old needle Abscission after several months
Lettuce Lectuca sativa Leaf Necrotic stipple; ivory necrosis; shot holing with coloured margin
Lucerne (alfalfa) Medicago sativa Leaf Marginal necrosis
Lupin Lupinus angustifolium Leaf Marginal necrosis
Maple Acer sp. Leaf Red/brown necrosis
Oak Quercus rubur (Q. pedunculata) Leaf Red/brown necrosis; marginal necrosis; ivory necrosis, often with dark brown border
Ox-eye daisy Chrysanthemum leucanthemum Leaf Orange/brown necrosis
Parsley Petroselinum crispum Leaf Tip necrosis
Pea Pisum sativum Leaf Marginal necrosis
Pear Pyrus communis Leaf Black necrosis
Pine Pinus sp. Old needle Abscission after several months
Pine Pinus sp. Old needle Bleaching, later necrosis
Pine Pinus sp. Old needle Ring of white spots close to base
Pine Pinus sp. Old needle Sharp red/brown band between necrotic and healthy tissue
Plantain Plantago sp. Leaf Ivory necrosis; bronzing/glazing
Potato Solanum tuberosum Leaf Black marginal stipple
Rhododendron Rhododendron Leaf Necrotic stipple
Rye Secale cereale Awn Tip necrosis
Silver birch Betula pendula Leaf Ivory necrosis, often with dark brown border
Spinach Spinacea oleracea Leaf Bronzing/glazing; shot holing with coloured margin
Spruce Picea sp. Old needle Immediate abscission
Sweet William Dianthus barbatus Bracts Tip necrosis
Sweet William Dianthus barbatus Sepals Tip necrosis
Timothy Phleum pratense Leaf Basal necrosis
Tulip Tulipa gesneriana Leaf Basal necrosis
O3 pollution Apple Malus sylvestris Fruit Tissue collapse around lenticels
Apple Malus sylvestris Leaf Bronzing by very dense small lesions, mostly on upper surface
Ash Fraxinus excelsior Leaf Dense to sparse purple/reddish stipple of upper surface, bounded by smallest veins
Barley Hordeum vulgare Leaf Fine chlorotic/white/tan streaks between large veins, more at leaf bendings & seedling tips/margins
Bean Phaseolus vulgaris Leaf Brown necrotic lesions on upper surface, darker on first trifoliate leaf
Bean Phaseolus vulgaris Fruit Rows of necrotic lesions
Citrus Citrus sp. Fruit Premature drop
Corn Zea mays Leaf Light tan/white bifacial irregular necrotic streaks severe on margins occurring at tips in young leaf pregressively downwards on old leaf; bands of small silver grey/light tan necrotic steaks
Grape Vitis vinifera Leaf Dense to sparse purple/reddish stipple of upper surface, bounded by smallest veins
Lilac Syringa vulgaris Leaf Curling with drying of tip & margin
Lime Tilia cordia Leaf Bronzing by very dense small lesions, mostly on upper surface
Lucerne (alfalfa) Medicago sativa Leaf White/light yellow-green/silvergrey/tan variable necrosis on all or limited area
Maple Acer sp. Leaf Dense to sparse purple/reddish stipple of upper surface, bounded by smallest veins
Oats Avena sativa Leaf Fine chlorotic/white/tan streaks between large veins, more at leaf bendings & seedling tips/margins
Onion Allium cepa Leaf White fleck, later brown tips
Pea Pisum sativum Leaf Fawn lesions
Pine Pinus sp. Needle Chlorotic mottling, later tip burn
Plane Platanus sp. Leaf Dense to sparse purple/reddish stipple of upper surface, bounded by smallest veins
Poplar Populus sp. Leaf Dark brown bifacial necrotic lesions
Silver birch Betula pendula Leaf Bleaching of upper surface except at margins
Snowberry Symphoricarpos albus Leaf Bleaching of upper surface except at margins
Spinach Spinacea oleracea Leaf Dull white/tan lesions; large bifacial necrosis
Tobacco Nicotiana tobacum Leaf Numerous small white/tan bifacial lesions on upper surface, larger and more on more sensitive varieties
Weymouth pine Pinus strobus Needle Chlorotic flecks, later pink lesions and then orange-red tip necrosis
Wheat Triticum vulgare Leaf Fine chlorotic/white/tan streaks between large veins, more at leaf bendings & seedling tips/margins
Salts pollution Hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Branch Tip-dieback
Maple Acer sp. Leaf Yellow necrosis
Poplar Populus sp. Leaf Abscission
Willow Salix sp. Leaf Brown necrosis
So2 pollution Apple Malus sylvestris Leaf Reddish necrosis; red discolouraion
Azalea Rhododendron sp. Leaf Reddish necrosis
Beech Fagus sylvatica Leaf Brown/orange necrosis; red discolouraion; necrotic stipple
Begonia Begonia sp. Leaf Shot holing
Blackberry Rubus fruticosus Leaf Brown necrosis
Bracken Pteridium aquilinum Frond Orange/red marginal necrosis
Broad bean Vicia faba Leaf Black necrosis
Cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata Leaf Red discolouration around necrotic areas
Carrot Daucus carota Leaf Tip necrosis
Cherry Prunus avium Leaf Red discolouraion
Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum sp. Leaf Brown necrosis
Corn Zea mays Leaf Red discolouration
Daffodil Narcissus pseudonarcissus Leaf Light brown necrosis; sharp band between necrotic and healthy tissue
Dandelion Taraxacum officinale Leaf Brown necrosis
Fir Abies sp. Old needle Immediate abscission
Fir Abies sp. Middle age needle Sharp boundry between necrotic and healthy tissue ater 3 wks of exposure
Fir Abies sp. Young shoot Twist
Fuschia Fuschia hybrida Leaf Distortion, puckering, curling
Geranium Pelargonium sp. Leaf Distortion, puckering, curling; grey necrosis
Gladiolus Gladiolus sp. Sepal Tip necrosis
Gooseberry Ribes uva-crispa Leaf Red stipple on upper surface; tip necrosis
Hazel Corylus avellana Leaf Brown/orange necrosis
Hydrangea Hydrangea macrophylla Leaf Red discolouration around necrotic areas
Larch Larix decidua Middle age needle Necrosis
Lettuce Lectuca sativa Leaf Dark spots on lower surface; shot holing
Lily of the Valley Convallaria majalis Leaf Sharp band between necrotic and healthy tissue
Lime Tilia cordia Leaf Brown/orange necrosis
Lucerne (alfalfa) Medicago sativa Leaf Bronzing of lower surface
Lucerne (alfalfa) Medicago sativa Leaf Ivory necrosis
Maple Acer sp. Leaf Distortion, puckering, curling
Marigold Tagetus sp. Sepal Tip necrosis before leaf injury
Marigold Tagetus sp. Leaf Large, bifacial necrotic spots on margin; distortion, puckering, curling
Oak Quercus rubur (Q. pedunculata) Leaf Ivory necrosis
Oats Avena sativa Leaf Ivory necrosis
Parsley Petroselinum crispum Leaf Tip necrosis
Pea Pisum sativum Leaf Ivory necrosis
Pear Pyrus communis Leaf Black necrosis
Pine Pinus sp. Terminal bud Necrosis
Pine Pinus sp. Young needle Chlorosis
Pine Pinus sp. Middle age needle Sharp boundry between necrotic and healthy tissue ater 3 wks of exposure
Pine Pinus sp. Old needle Abscission after several months
Pine Pinus sp. Young shoot Necrosis
Poplar Populus sp. Leaf Reddish necrosis
Raspberry Rubus idaeus Leaf Marginal necrosis
Red currant Ribes rubrum Leaf Red stipple on upper surface
Rose Rosa sp. Leaf Red stipple on upper surface
Rowan Sorbus aucuparia Leaf Ivory necrosis
Silver birch Betula pendula Leaf Distortion, puckering, curling
Silver birch Betula pendula Leaf Ivory necrosis
Spinach Spinacea oleracea Leaf Shot holing
Spruce Picea sp. Middle age needle Necrosis
Strawberry Fragaria vesca Leaf Red discolouration around necrotic areas; brown necrosis
Sweet William Dianthus barbatus Leaf Tip necrosis
Tulip Tulipa gesneriana Leaf Ivory necrosis
Violet Viola sp. Leaf Ivory necrosis
Wheat Triticum vulgare Leaf Red discolouration
Willow Salix sp. Leaf Ivory necrosis
Zinnia Zinnia angustifolia Leaf Ivory necrosis

1 Comment »

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