Environment of Earth

March 11, 2008


Filed under: terrestrial vegetation — gargpk @ 1:45 pm
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India is situated at tropical latitudes and has diverse temperature and rainfall regimes. The overall climate of India is suitable for the growth of forests. The climax formations of Indian subcontinent have been altered much due to human activities in the last few thousand years. However, the remaining vegetation shows that the natural vegetation of India primarily consists of forests. The grasslands found in the region are not natural plant formations but have originated secondarily due to destruction of natural forests in some places. Therefore, these represent various stages of seral (successional) development due to the influence of a variety of biotic influences.

Source : Forest Survey of India, Dehradun. State of forest report 2001. Dehradun, FSI, 2002. 12p.


The most important factors influencing the physiognomy, species composition, phenology etc. of Indian forests are temperature, rainfall, local edaphic and biotic factors. These factors have been used in the classification of Indian forests. Most detailed classification of Indian forests is by Champion and Seth (1967) in which 16 major types of forests have been recognized. These 16 major types can be grouped into 5 major categories viz. moist tropical, dry tropical, montane sub-tropical, temperate and alpine forests.

Natural Vegetations in India

See also: http://www.envfor.nic.in/fsi/sfr99/misc/ifcmap.html


These forests are found in the areas of quite high temperature and rainfall. The forests are dense, multi-layered and have many types of trees, shrubs and lians. These forests are further categorized into 4 types depending on the degree of wetness in the area and the dominant life form in the forest.

(1)  Tropical moist evergreen forests

These are climatic climax forests found commonly in areas having annual rainfall above 250 cm and temperature 25-30oC. These forests are chiefly distributed on the western face of Western Ghats, Assam, Cachar, parts of West Bengal, northern Canara, Annamalai Hills and Coorg in Meysore and Andman Islands.

The characteristic feature of these forests is dense growth of very tall trees having height of more than 45 m. Climbers, lians, epiphytes and shrubs are abundant but herbs and grasses are rare in these forests. The carpet layer of herbs and grasses can not grow because very dense layer of leaf canopy of trees does not allow enough light to reach to the ground.

Dominant trees in forests of west coast are Dipterocarpus indica, Palaquim and Cellenia while in forests of Assam Diptercarpus macrocarpus, D. turbinatus, Shorea assamica, Mesua ferrea and Kayea are the dominant trees.

Common subdominants in these forests are Mangifera, Eugenia, Myristica, Pterospermum, Polyalthia, Elaeocarpus, Schlechera, Artocarpus, Memeocylon, Poeciloneuron, Cinnamomum, Diospyros, Sapindus, Vitex, Holigarna, Alstonia, Hardwickia, Spondias, Dendrocalamus, Calamus, Bombax, Veteria, Calophyllum, Pandanus, Cedrela, Tetrameles, Strobilanthes, Emblica, Michelia, Ixora, Hopea, Lagerstroemia, several species of ferns and orchids.

See also: http://www.indianetzone.com/2/forests.htm

(2) Tropical moist semi-evergreen forests

These are also climatic climax forests found commonly in areas of annual rainfall 200-250 cm and temperature 25-32oC.These forests are chiefly distributed along the Western Ghats, in upper parts of Assam and Orissa and in Andman Islands. These forests are more developed in the northern India than in southern India.

Characteristic feature of these forests is dense growth of evergreen trees intermixed with deciduous trees that shed their leaves for very brief period of relative dryness. Average height of trees in these forests is 25-35 m and shrubs are common. Forests have rich carpet layer of herbs, grasses ferns and orchids.

Dominant trees in these forests are Dipterocarpus alatus, Hopea, Terminalia and Salmalia in Andman Island; Artocarpus, Micheliaand Mangifera in Orissa; Schima wallichii, Bauhinia, Phobe and Ammora in Assam.

Common subdominants in these forests are Mylia, Schleichera, Bambusa, Ixora, Calamus, Sterculia, Webera, Strobilanthus, Cedrela, Shorea, Actinodaphne, Garcinia, Lagerstroemia, Mallotus, Vernonia, Dendrocalamus, Pelvetta, Elattaria, Pothos, Vitis, Garuga, Albizzia and Dellenia. Common herbs and grasses in the ground (carpet) layer are Inula, Andropogon, Crotolaria, Imperata, Leca, Desmodium, Fambosa and Woodfordia.

(3) Tropical moist deciduous forests

These forests are found in the area having temperature of 25-30oC and quite high annual rainfall of 150-200 cm spread over most of the year but periods of rain alternating with very short periods of dryness. In several areas, the forests have been converted into open savannahs due to intensive biotic factors. These forests are chiefly distributed in a narrow belt along Himalayan foothills, on the eastern side of Western Ghats, Chota Nagpur, Khasi hills, in moist areas of Kerala, Karnataka, sothern Madhya Pradesh, parts of northern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal.

Chief characteristic of these forests is dominance of deciduous trees that remain leafless for one or two months only along with lower story of smaller trees and evergreen shrubs.

Dominant trees of these forests in north India are Tectona grandis, Shorea robusta, Salmella, and Dalbergia while in south India only Tectona grandis and Shorea sp. are dominant.

Common subdominants in the forests are Cedrela, Albizzia, Terminalia, Adina, Melia, Sterculia, Grewia, Gariya, Lagerstroemia, Cordia, Pongamia, Bambusa, Dendrocalamus, Chloris, Mallotus, Anogeissus, heteropogon, Cymbopogon and Andropogon.

See also:


(4) Littoral and swamp forests

These forests are found in wet marshy areas, in river deltas, in saline or other swampy areas and along the sea coasts. They are chiefly distributed in deltas of large rivers on the eastern coast and in pockets on the western coast (Tidal forests), in saline swamps of Sundarban in West Bengal, coastal areas of Andhra and Orissa (Mangrove forests) and in less saline or non-saline swampy pockets throughout the India.

Chief characteristic of these forests is dominance of halophytic evergreen plants of varying height with varying density of plants in different area.

Dominant plants of tidal and mangrove forests are Rhizophora, Bruguiera, Ceriops, Horitora, Avicennia, Nipa, Sonneratia and Acanthus. In less saline swamps, dominant plants are Ipomea, Phoenix, Phragmitis, Casuarina, Manilkara and Calophyllum. In other swamps, the dominant plants are Barringtonia, Syzygium, Myristica, Bischofia, Trowia, Lagerstroemia, Sophora, Pandanus, Entada and Premna.

See also: http://www.indianetzone.com/39/indian_tidal_or_mangrove_forests.htm


These forests are found in the areas where wet season is followed by a relatively long period of dryness during which trees remain leafless. These forests are dominated by smaller trees and shrubs and have abundance of shrubs or sometimes grasses. This category includes three types of forests.

(1) Tropical dry deciduous forests

These forests are found in areas having temperature of 25-32oC and annual rainfall of 75-125 cm along with a dry season of about six months. Distribution of these forests in northern India is in areas of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Orissa. In the southern and central India, these forests are distributed in dry areas of Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh.

Chief characteristic feature of the forests is open canopy of small (10-15 m high) trees and abundance of shrubs.

Dominant species of the forests in north India are Shorea robusta, anogeissus, Terminalia, Buchnnania, Somocarpus, Carissa, Emblica, Madhuca, Acacia, Aegle, Diospyros, Bauhinia, Eugenia, Zyzyphus, Lannea, Sterculia, Dendrocalamus, Salmelia, Adina, Grewia, Adathoda and Helicteres. In south India, dominant plants are Tectona grandis, Dalbergia, Kydia, Terminalia, Pterospermum, Dillenia, Acacia, Diospyros, Anogeissus, Boswellia, Bauhinia, Chloroxylon, Hardwickia, Soymida, Gymnosporia, Zyzyphus, Dendrocalamus and Holorrhena.

Subdominant species in these forests are Bambusa, Lantana and grasses like Panicum, Andropogon and Heteropogon.

See also: http://www.indianetzone.com/39/indian_dry_deciduous_forests.htm

(2) Tropical thorn forests

These forests are found in the areas of high temperature of 27-30oC and very low annual rainfall of 20-60 cm with long periods of dryness. These forests are distributed in western Rajasthan, parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamilnadu.

Chief charateristic of such forests is sparse distribution of small (8-10 m high) mostly thorny trees with shrubs being more common than trees. The plants in these forests remain leafless for most of the year. They develop leaves only during the brief rainy season when grasses and herbs also become abundant.

Dominant plants in these forests are Acacia nilotica, A. leucophloea, A. senegal, Prosopis spicigera, P. juliflora, Albizzia and Capparis.

Common subdominant plants are Zyzyphus, Anogeissus, Erythroxylon, Euphorbia, Cordia, Randia, Balanites, Salvadora, Gymnosporis, Leptadenia, Suaeda, Grewia, Gymnoma, Asparagus, Butea, Calotropis, Adathoda, Madhuca, Salmelia, Crotolaria, Tephrosia and Indigophera.

(3) Tropical dry evergreen forests

These forests are found in the areas of relatively high temperature and small rainfall available only during summers. The forests are distributed in some parts of Tamilnadu and Karnataka.

Chief characteristic features of the forests are dense distribution of mixed small evergreen and deciduous trees of 10-15 m height, absence of bamboos and abundance of grasses.

Dominant plants in the forests are Memecylon, Maba, Pavetta, Foronia, Terminalia, Ixora, Sterculia, Mesua and Schleichora.


These forests occur in the areas where climate is cooler than tropical but warmer than temperate areas i.e. on the hills between the altitudes of 1000 m and 2000 m. The forests are dominated by semi-xerophytic evergreen plants. This category includes three types of forests.

(1) Sub-tropical broad-leaved hill forests

These forests occur in relatively moist areas at lower altitudes on mountain ranges. Their chief distribution is in eastern Himalayas of West Bengal and Assam , hills of Khasi, Nilgiri and Mahabaleshwar.

Chief characteristic feature of the forests is dense growth of evergreen browd-leaved trees with abundant growth of climbers and epiphytic ferns and orchids.

Dominant trees in the forests of north are Quercus, Schima and Castanopsis with some temperate species. In the southern areas, dominants are Eugenia and members of family Lauraceae.

Common co-dominants and subdominants in the eastern Himalayas are Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia, catachu, Sterospermum, Cedrela toona, Bauhinia, Anthocephalus cadamba, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Albizzia procera, Salmella, Artocarpus chaplasha and Dendrocalamus. In the western Himalayas, codominants and subdominants are Shorea robusta, Dalbergia sissoo, Cedrela toona, Ficus glomerulata, Eugenia jambolina, Acacia catachu, Butea monosperma, Carissa and Zizyphus. Other common plants in these forests of both north and south India are Actinodaphne, Randia, Glochidion, Terminalia, Olea, Eleagnus, Murraya, Atylosia, Ficus, Pittosporum, Saccopetalum, Carreya, Alnus, Betula, Phobe, Cedrela, Garcinia and Polulus. In the south, Mangifera and Canthium and climers like Piper trichostachyon, Gnetum scandens and Smilax macrophylla are also common.

(2) Sub-tropical dry evergreen forests

These forests occur in areas having quite low temperature and rainfall. The forests are distributed in the lower altitudes of eastern and western Himalayas.

Chief characteristic feature of the forests is presence of thorny xerophytes and small-leaved evergreen plants.

Dominant plants in the forests are Acacia modesta, Dodonea viscosa and Olea cuspidata.

(3) Sub-tropical pine forests

These forests occur at middle altitudes between 1500-2000 m in Himalayas. They are distributed in western Himalayas from Kashmir to Uttar Pradesh. In eastern Himalayas, the forests occur in Khasi Jayantia Hills of Assam.

Chief characteristics of the forests in open formations of pine trees.

Dominant trees in the forests are P. roxburghii and Pinus khasiana.


These forests are found in the areas having quite low temperature along with comparatively high humidity than the comparable areas of higher latitudes. The cause of high humidity is greater rainfall in Himalayas except in parts of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir where humidity is lower. The forests occur mainly in the Himalayas at altitudes 2000-4000 m. The forests are generally dominated by tall conifers or angiospermic evergreen trees with abundance of epiphytic mosses, lichens and ferns. The category includes three types of forests.

See also http://www.indianetzone.com/2/temperate_deciduous_forests.htm

(1) Wet temperate forests

These forests are found at altitudes of 1800-3000 m in the cooler and humid mountains. They are distributed in the eastern Himalayas from eastern Nepal to Assam, in the western Himalayas from Kashmir to western Nepal and in Nilgiri Hills of south Indian.

Chief characteristic feature of the forests in the Himalayas is dense formation of evergreen, semievergreen broad-leaved and coniferous trees of up to 25 m height. In south India, these forests are termed Shola forests and mostly have 15-20 m high broad-leaved trees with dense leaf canopy, abundant epiphytic flora and rich herbaceous undergrowth.

Dominant trees in the forests of western Himalayas are angiosperms like Quercus, Betula, Acer, Ulmus, Populus, Corylus, Caprinus etc. and conifers like Abies, Picea, Cedrus etc. In eastern Himalayas, dominants are Quercus, Acer, Prunus, Ulmus, Eurya, Machilus, Symplocos, Mahonia, Begonia, Michelia, Thunbergia, Rhododendron, Arundinaria, Bucklandia, Pittosporum, Loranthus, Tsug and, Abies. In the Nilgiri Hills, the dominants are Rhododendron nilagiricum, Hopea, Balanocarpus, Artocarpus, Artocarpus, Elaeocarpus, Pterocarpus, Hardwickia, Myristica, Cordonia, Salmalia, Mucuna and Dioscorea. In all the areas, the undergrowth is formed by members of Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Acanthaceae and Fabaceae.

(2) Himalayan moist temperate forests

These forests are found at 1700-3500 m altitude in eastern and western Himalayas. These occur in areas having annual rainfall above 100 cm but relatively less than that in areas of wet temperate forests.

Chief characteristic feature of the forests is presence of tall (up to 45 m high) conifers, oaks or their mixture along with thin partly deciduous undergrowth.

Dominant trees in the eastern Himalayas are Tsuga dumosa, Quercus lineata, Picea spinulosa, Abies densa and Quercus pachyphylla. In the western Himalayas, dominants in lower zones are Quercus incana, . dialata, Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, Picea smithiana, Abies pindrew, Cotoneaster, Berberis and Spire while in the higher zones the dominants are Quercus semicarpifolia and Abies pindrew.

(3) Himalayan dry temperate forests

These forests occur in the regions of Himalayas having very low rainfall. They are distributed in both eastern and western Himalayas.

Chief characteristic feature of the forests is dominance of evergreen oaks and conifers. Undergrowth is formed by scrubs.

Dominant trees in the forests of comparatively drier western Himalayas are Pinus gerardiana and Quercus ilex. In the comparatively wetter western Himalayan region, the dominants are Abies, Picea, Larix griffithia and Juniperus wallichiana.

Subdominant plants in these forests are Daphne, Artemesia, Fraxinus, Alnus, Cannabis and Plectranthus.

See also: http://www.indianetzone.com/11/himalayan_subtropical_pine_forests.htm


These forests are found in the regions of Himalayas having extremely low temperature and humidity. The forests are dominated by perennial and annual herbs and grasses though some trees may also be present in areas of relatively high humidity. Abundant lichen flora is characteristic feature of these forests. This category includes three types of forests.

(1) Sub-alpine forests

These forests are found in open strands throughout the Himalayas between the altitude 3500 m and the tree tine.

Chief characteristic feature of the forests is presence of some evergreen conifers and broad-leaved trees along with prominent shrub layer.

Dominant trees in the forests are Abies spectabilis, Rhododendron and Betula. Prominent shrubs in the forests are Cotoneaster, Rosa, Smilax, Lonicera and Strobilanthus.

(2) Moist alpine scrub forests

These forests are found in the Himalayas above the tree line up to 5500 m altitude in somewhat moist areas.

Chief characteristic feature of the forests is dominance of dwarf, evergreen shrubby conifers and broad-leaved trees along with prominent shrub layer under them.

Dominant trees in the forests are Juniperus and Rhododendron while prominent shrubs are Thalictrum, Lonicera, Saxifraga, Arenaria, Bergia, Sedum and Primula.

(3) Dry alpine forests

These forests are found in comparatively more dry areas of Himalayas upto 5500 m altitude.

Chief characteristic feature of the forests is open formation of xerophytic scrubs with many herbs and grasses.

Dominant plants in the forests are Juniperus, Caragana, Eurctia, Salix and Myricaria.


The grasslands of India are not of primary origin. These have originated secondarily in many areas due to destruction of natural forests by biotic interference, particularly due to excessive grazing and land clearing for agriculture. These grasslands are maintained in various seral (successional) stages by a variety of biotic factors.

According to the dryness of the area, the Indian grasslands may be categorized into three types.

  1. Xerophilous grasslands: These are found in semi-desert areas of north and west India.

  2. Mesophilous grasslands (Savannahas): These are found in areas of Uttar Pradesh having moist deciduous forests.

  3. Hygrophilous grasslands (Wet savannahas): These are found in wet regions of India.

Whyte et al. (1954) classified Indian grasslands on the basis of dominant grass species into eight major grass associations.

(1) Sehima-Dichanthium association

These grasslands develop on black soil. They are found in some areas of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, south western Uttar Pradesh, Tamilnadu and Karnataka.

Dominant grass species in the grasslands are Sehima sulcatum, S. nervosum, Dichanthium annulatum, Chrysopogon montanus and Themeda quadrivalvia.

(2) Dichanthium-Cenchrus association

These grasslands develop on sandy-loam soils. They are found in Plains of Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, Saurashtra, eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, eastern Madhya Pradesh, coastal Maharashtra and Tamilnadu.

Dominant species in these grasslands are Dichanthium annulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris.

(3) Phragmitis-Saccharum association

These grasslands develop in marshy areas. They are found in terai regions of northern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Sundarban region of Bengal, Tamilnadu, and Kaveri delta.

Dominant species in these grasslands are Phragmitis karka,, Saccharum spontaneum, Imeerata cylindrica and Bothriochlo pertusa.

(4) Cymbopogon type

These grasslands develop on low hills. They are found in Eastern Ghats, Vidhyas, Satpura, Aravali and Chota Nagpur.

Dominant species in the grasslands is Cymbopogon.

(5) Arundinella type

These grasslands develop on high hills. They are found in Western Ghats, Nilgiris and lower Himalayas from Assam to Kashmir.

Dominant species in the grasslands are Arundinella nepalensis, A. setosa and Themeda anthera.

(6) Bothriochloa type

These grasslands develop on paddy tracts in areas of heavey rainfall in Lonavala tract of Maharashtra.

Dominant species in the grasslands is Bothriochloa odorata.

(7) Deyeuxia-Arundinella association

These grasslands develop in temperate areas of upper Himalayas between 2100-3500 m altitudes.

Dominant species in the grasslands are Deyeuxia, Arundinella, Brachypodium, Bromus and Festuca.

(8) Deschampsia-Deyeuxia association

These grasslands develop in temperate to alpine regions having thin soil cover over rocky substratum. They are found in Kashmir and in Himalayas above 2600 m altitude.

Dominant species in the grasslands are Deyeuxia, Deschampsia, Poa, Stipa, Glycera and Festuca.



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  63. it is good and helped ME A LOT in my project……

    Comment by Aakanksha Gahlot — June 3, 2011 @ 7:16 am | Reply

  64. realy coooool stufff……..4 ma geography project……..

    Comment by hiteshi — June 4, 2011 @ 12:06 pm | Reply

  65. my tension reliever!!! made my project!!!! Thanx dude.

    Comment by Madhurya Tarafder — June 21, 2011 @ 11:00 am | Reply

  66. WOW NICE INFO………it helped me a lot for my geo project…..

    Comment by Niyushi gala — June 28, 2011 @ 9:02 am | Reply

  67. vey good report really useful

    Comment by shivam gupta — July 30, 2011 @ 5:46 am | Reply

  68. yup man its vry useful cause dis i scored top in my project thnx!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1

    Comment by vishal — August 13, 2011 @ 2:00 pm | Reply

  69. very nice report.. it helped me in my project………..thanxxxx%%%%

    Comment by Mustafa Birla — November 1, 2011 @ 2:27 pm | Reply

  70. bakwaas

    Comment by Simmy grewal — November 10, 2011 @ 12:52 pm | Reply

  71. its very………………………..bad

    Comment by Simmy grewal — November 10, 2011 @ 12:53 pm | Reply

  72. Thank you so much it was very much useful for my project . But add some pictures to it so that it is still more useful.

    Comment by Shalini.R — November 14, 2011 @ 8:39 am | Reply

  73. i have got d-grade after showing this report in my school

    Comment by shivam — November 17, 2011 @ 10:21 am | Reply

  74. good informaction

    Comment by ankit — November 19, 2011 @ 3:49 am | Reply

  75. need to improve really add more images and correct images

    Comment by Ashok kumar — November 26, 2011 @ 2:19 am | Reply

  76. very useful datassssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss are given.

    Comment by Indrajit nair — November 27, 2011 @ 4:15 am | Reply

  77. very very worst

    Comment by santhosh — November 28, 2011 @ 5:20 am | Reply

  78. very very nice details about the vegetation but it will very good when more images about this /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////thankssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss

    Comment by naveen — December 1, 2011 @ 4:45 pm | Reply

  79. it helped me a lot. THANKS A LOT

    Comment by kritzi — December 8, 2011 @ 2:36 pm | Reply



    Comment by AIISHU (AMMU) — December 9, 2011 @ 10:35 am | Reply

  81. bla bla

    Comment by pinky — December 26, 2011 @ 4:27 pm | Reply

  82. its really good .
    ……………………it helped me a lot to do my project!!
    thanx :-)

    Comment by raveena shinde — December 28, 2011 @ 5:24 pm | Reply

  83. exellent

    Comment by raveena shinde — December 28, 2011 @ 5:33 pm | Reply

  84. i dont think so that this site is as useful as everyone said. there’s no point on giving only india
    s information, the whole world’s should be there. if not, its no help at all! and secondly, there’s nothing that makes this site to anyone’s intrest!nothing attracting at all!
    nd what du u mean by showing that pen in the headline? it makes no sense at all!
    specially there are no pictures here for reference too!

    Comment by omisha chettri — January 2, 2012 @ 11:08 am | Reply

  85. i agree with u omisha chhetri, this is a totally useless site!
    no information at all!

    Comment by anna hemphson — January 2, 2012 @ 11:15 am | Reply

  86. same here

    Comment by sabrina cabot — January 2, 2012 @ 11:16 am | Reply

  87. Thnx I got A+

    Comment by Anupam — January 2, 2012 @ 3:43 pm | Reply

  88. yes i have got a+ exellent for my final exam

    Comment by arya choudhary — January 4, 2012 @ 8:27 pm | Reply

  89. thanx 4 ur info ……… it just made ssc presentation awesome !!!!!! thanx

    Comment by anas — January 16, 2012 @ 2:00 pm | Reply

  90. Good brief accounnt of Indian vegetation.

    Comment by Garg, P. — January 16, 2012 @ 11:30 pm | Reply

    • ya it also helps for projects…….

      Comment by parth — January 22, 2012 @ 5:38 am | Reply

  91. wooooooooooooo fantastic

    Comment by ritesh — January 17, 2012 @ 2:35 am | Reply

  92. nice but photos are not there.

    Comment by harshitha — February 5, 2012 @ 6:03 am | Reply

  93. nice but need pictures

    Comment by harshitha — February 5, 2012 @ 10:34 am | Reply

  94. WOW what an amazing site its amazing!!!!!!!!!!

    Comment by Shaishav — February 9, 2012 @ 12:04 pm | Reply

  95. gud work

    Comment by jebbin — February 11, 2012 @ 10:55 am | Reply

  96. grt work u could add some more pics and there’s too much writings try to lower the notes

    Comment by irin — February 12, 2012 @ 2:43 pm | Reply

  97. too high-level to understand for children.

    Comment by prathik — February 15, 2012 @ 2:18 pm | Reply

  98. thanks for my project

    Comment by rocky — February 29, 2012 @ 10:15 am | Reply

  99. cool information for my goegraphy project!!!….

    Comment by keegan menezes — March 12, 2012 @ 3:04 pm | Reply

  100. it helped in making my geography project

    Comment by kanak singh — May 21, 2012 @ 7:43 am | Reply

  101. thanx now i can do my holiday homework

    Comment by i am the girl whome u dont know — May 21, 2012 @ 4:27 pm | Reply

  102. thanks for my project…………. now i can do it………..;)

    Comment by Raghav Gupta — May 22, 2012 @ 8:34 am | Reply

  103. THAXXXXXXX ALOT!!!!!!!! LOL

    Comment by ALISH — May 25, 2012 @ 8:35 am | Reply

  104. Tanxxx its really nice……..and it help me to complete my project……..so thanx alot dea…!!!!

    Comment by apsara — June 2, 2012 @ 11:29 am | Reply

  105. than you very much 4 this info..:P

    Comment by anshul bajaj — June 8, 2012 @ 2:26 pm | Reply

  106. thanxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx a lot frnds

    Comment by priyanka — June 9, 2012 @ 7:18 am | Reply

  107. thankks

    Comment by papplu — June 9, 2012 @ 7:23 am | Reply

  108. thanxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx a lot

    Comment by pinky — June 9, 2012 @ 7:24 am | Reply

  109. Thanx a lot, you got just the required information for my geo project.

    Comment by Priyanshi — June 10, 2012 @ 9:56 am | Reply

  110. it helped vry much in my project ……. :)

    Comment by kanak singh — June 11, 2012 @ 8:57 am | Reply

  111. Awesome info:-)

    Comment by Biswajitkundu — June 14, 2012 @ 12:29 pm | Reply

  112. this info is awesome.it really helped me in my project work ,but there should be more images.

    Comment by ISHA — June 16, 2012 @ 4:44 am | Reply

  113. It really helped me in making my power point presentation ! hats off to this site for saving ma time! thanQQss………………..:)

    Comment by Ritika kaushik — June 22, 2012 @ 8:55 pm | Reply

  114. Very good source for me.Helped me alot for my project.

    Comment by Suyash Rai — June 23, 2012 @ 5:27 am | Reply

  115. Thanks for my geography project, these articles helped me a lot in getting information.

    Comment by Shruti — June 23, 2012 @ 7:02 am | Reply

  116. than u for the information
    like u for it

    Comment by dipsikha — June 25, 2012 @ 9:11 am | Reply

  117. it is so perfect . i got my answers. awesome!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    Comment by KARTIK PAWAR — July 5, 2012 @ 8:52 am | Reply

  118. thanks a lot,I am currently teaching this topic,am writing from swaziland

    Comment by kayombo lackson — July 11, 2012 @ 8:38 am | Reply

  119. got awesome info for my projects

    Comment by Harsh Vaibhav — July 21, 2012 @ 6:50 am | Reply

  120. good information

    Comment by behlah — July 28, 2012 @ 11:31 am | Reply

  121. It is vry useful. thank you!!!!

    Comment by Anjin Anirudh — August 12, 2012 @ 5:27 am | Reply

  122. thanks for such a nice important information

    Comment by neha khan — August 21, 2012 @ 8:28 pm | Reply

  123. thanks

    Comment by anjaz — August 30, 2012 @ 10:36 am | Reply

  124. thanks……… for providing me this information. this site was toooooooooo good…

    Comment by iram — September 2, 2012 @ 1:52 pm | Reply

  125. Thanks good material for nots

    Comment by eeshwari pd chelak — September 9, 2012 @ 3:45 pm | Reply

  126. good info,pictures can be added .rather than scientific names ,use of common names should have been bettter of trees

    Comment by sudeepansh — September 11, 2012 @ 7:02 pm | Reply

  127. I got what I want…………….

    Comment by POORNIMA ATTUKAL — October 7, 2012 @ 1:11 pm | Reply


    Comment by POORNIMA ATTUKAL — October 7, 2012 @ 1:12 pm | Reply

  129. wah! bahut bahut acchi chij hai 1 chiz manga tha isme bahut sare mil gaye

    Comment by adarsh tiwari — October 8, 2012 @ 11:30 am | Reply

  130. thnx alot….this site helped me very much

    Comment by Risana Rasheed — October 9, 2012 @ 1:12 pm | Reply

  131. hey!!thnx a lot.I will never forget this

    Comment by Ramseena Rasheed — October 9, 2012 @ 1:17 pm | Reply

  132. it was awesome man

    Comment by komal — October 10, 2012 @ 1:15 pm | Reply

  133. it was useful for my project work in 7th standard at notre dame of holycross school salem tamilnadu india

    Comment by manish jain — October 19, 2012 @ 1:46 pm | Reply

  134. I will never forget it!

    Comment by Natasha Sharma — October 21, 2012 @ 10:12 am | Reply

  135. It is very useful
    thank you

    Comment by Satya — October 22, 2012 @ 3:57 pm | Reply

  136. dats a nice topic

    Comment by muskan bhagra — October 26, 2012 @ 12:11 pm | Reply


    Comment by Shamu — October 27, 2012 @ 2:05 pm | Reply

  138. this info is really helpful for my project truely……………….

    Comment by Koolkrusher — October 29, 2012 @ 1:42 pm | Reply

  139. it is very useful to children to know about………………………………………….

    Comment by prashant — December 17, 2012 @ 3:27 pm | Reply

  140. really too great!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    Comment by ewtehr — December 18, 2012 @ 12:40 pm | Reply

  141. Thanks bud.. i needed just this…

    Comment by ganduchutsaaleharaamkhor — December 18, 2012 @ 1:47 pm | Reply

  142. it was very helpfull thank you for providing informations it was very interesting the data about the forest were excelent

    Comment by Ravindra.R — January 20, 2013 @ 12:52 pm | Reply

  143. Amazing work. I honestly relished NATURAL VEGETATION OF INDIA | Environment
    of Earth. I hope you do not mind me personally expressing this but it reminded me of ethernet cable price that I learned about on an
    alternative web pages.

    Comment by hcg diet — April 10, 2013 @ 3:44 am | Reply

  144. First of all I would like to say terrific blog!
    I had a quick question in which I’d like to ask if you do not mind. I was interested to know how you center yourself and clear your thoughts prior to writing. I have had a difficult time clearing my mind in getting my thoughts out there. I do take pleasure in writing however it just seems like the first 10 to 15 minutes are generally wasted simply just trying to figure out how to begin. Any recommendations or tips? Kudos!

    Comment by stock charts — April 10, 2013 @ 4:02 am | Reply

  145. thnx a lot

    Comment by tulika borah — May 10, 2013 @ 5:41 pm | Reply

  146. thanks this info helped me complete my pending project :D

    Comment by ayushi mishra :p — May 18, 2013 @ 2:22 pm | Reply

  147. thank you for the useful info! :) will get a good grade for my project because of this site…. :P
    although some more pictures would be nice :)

    Comment by chiquita fernandes — June 4, 2013 @ 10:04 am | Reply

  148. It helps me a lot to prepare my project on green earth

    Comment by Patatri Goswami — June 12, 2013 @ 2:22 pm | Reply

  149. perfect for my geography project.awesome!!!

    Comment by vedika — June 18, 2013 @ 12:15 pm | Reply

  150. Amazing information ,only because of this i able to complete my work

    Comment by Vikram — July 4, 2013 @ 3:41 pm | Reply

  151. good info…………….it helped me a lot$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

    Comment by Nikhs — August 4, 2013 @ 4:52 pm | Reply


    Comment by SUPRATIK GHANTI — August 25, 2013 @ 6:12 pm | Reply


    Comment by vishakha — August 31, 2013 @ 2:29 pm | Reply

  154. These informations are epic my exam is tomorrow and all this information are going to help me a lot ….wish me luck …

    Comment by Avantika — September 12, 2013 @ 3:11 am | Reply

  155. hai my name is guna its help to my semester exam

    Comment by guna — November 9, 2013 @ 3:54 pm | Reply

  156. Thank You sooooooooooooo much for helping me to do my project

    Comment by Abhishek — December 20, 2013 @ 10:37 am | Reply

  157. useful pieces of information..

    Comment by ani — December 20, 2013 @ 6:08 pm | Reply

  158. hi my name is jyoti . its help me to complete my project . it was very nice

    Comment by jyoti das — January 1, 2014 @ 5:17 am | Reply

  159. helped me a lot :D

    Comment by NIKHIL — January 3, 2014 @ 6:02 pm | Reply

  160. it wonderful

    Comment by rachita Bhatia — February 15, 2014 @ 8:00 am | Reply

  161. nice matter for my project… really….

    Comment by vinita maheshwari — March 11, 2014 @ 6:01 pm | Reply

  162. I GOT MY WHOLE PROJECT COMPLETED……and all becuse of this super awesome sight…… THANKS A LOT…. :D

    Comment by Davis Wilson — April 22, 2014 @ 7:45 pm | Reply

  163. nice infprmation

    Comment by sunny singh — April 24, 2014 @ 11:48 pm | Reply

  164. thankyou very very much for keeping such a good theory about vegetations

    Comment by aditya bajpai mohil — June 2, 2014 @ 7:12 pm | Reply

  165. realy helped very much in my project

    Comment by tani — June 5, 2014 @ 1:51 pm | Reply

  166. it is very helpful in my projects

    Comment by anuj sharma — June 6, 2014 @ 8:45 am | Reply

  167. thanksssssss…. it help me a lot in my project

    Comment by alia khan — June 15, 2014 @ 1:04 pm | Reply

  168. it is too much breifly.

    Comment by jaskiran kaur — June 28, 2014 @ 8:31 am | Reply

  169. good dude its realy helpful for my geography project,but it is very long.thanks

    Comment by jaskiran kaur — June 28, 2014 @ 8:35 am | Reply

  170. We’re a gaggle of volunteers and starting a brand new scheme in our community.
    Your web site provided us with valuable info to work
    on. You have performed a formidable task and our entire neighborhood will probably be
    grateful to you.

    Comment by Thurman — July 9, 2014 @ 4:38 pm | Reply

  171. What’s up, yes this piece of writing is actually pleasant and I have learned lot of things from it regarding blogging.

    Comment by flooded carpet — August 26, 2014 @ 1:52 pm | Reply

  172. I every time spent my half an hour to read this webpage’s posts everyday along with
    a cup of coffee.

    Comment by spot price for silver — September 1, 2014 @ 12:54 am | Reply

  173. thanks because of you I got 10 on 10

    Comment by aditya — December 30, 2014 @ 2:40 pm | Reply


    Comment by manav — April 27, 2015 @ 11:13 am | Reply

  175. but i need more pics………

    Comment by anushka — June 1, 2015 @ 3:04 pm | Reply

  176. i hope bczs of such gud info i m going to get 20 on 20 on my pro………

    Comment by anushka — June 1, 2015 @ 3:07 pm | Reply

  177. helpfull but I needed more information………………………………………………………………

    Comment by ROUMAK — June 14, 2015 @ 11:22 am | Reply

  178. good for general vegetation type of India- Dr Deo Narayan

    Comment by Dr. Deo Narayan — July 16, 2015 @ 5:58 am | Reply

  179. good but some things off the head

    Comment by soul reaper — October 19, 2015 @ 10:18 am | Reply

  180. too much helpful for students…!!!!!*****

    Comment by richa yadav — October 21, 2015 @ 6:38 am | Reply

  181. Awosome yaar your information are mind blowing

    Comment by Chandrakkiran Sahu — November 5, 2015 @ 1:55 pm | Reply

  182. Thanks this information is very useful for me

    Comment by Priyanshu — November 20, 2015 @ 2:10 pm | Reply

  183. This is the most helpful site I have ever visited, for my project!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    Comment by JB — December 7, 2015 @ 5:15 pm | Reply

  184. good nicely explained help me for my geo project :https://environmentofearth.wordpress.com rocks

    Comment by sbk2016 — December 28, 2015 @ 3:21 pm | Reply

  185. Thanks a lot !!!

    it was very helpful for me….for my sister’s project !!!
    Yippeeee !!!

    Comment by Hamidur haque — January 8, 2016 @ 5:44 am | Reply

  186. helpful site

    Comment by lavika — May 4, 2016 @ 7:16 pm | Reply

  187. This helped me in the project

    Comment by animesh singh — May 10, 2016 @ 4:38 am | Reply

  188. nice one

    Comment by shovit shah — May 30, 2016 @ 10:28 am | Reply

  189. Thanx Bro’s,this really helped me in my GEO project.I had very less time to search for all this stuff and you guys collected it and got it for me now I can complete it within my submission date.Thanx once again.

    Comment by Sam Michael Justin — June 1, 2016 @ 3:51 am | Reply

  190. This helps me a lot in completing my project but there is no form of graphical representation , any kind of pie chart. My project is used to be with some graphical representation but information is somehow helped to me. I request you to pls add something which help in project and look more beautiful

    Comment by Shiven kuchhal — July 6, 2016 @ 6:35 am | Reply

  191. thanks it is very help full for me in my assignment please add some pictures for help

    Comment by Sankalp Nandwal — September 18, 2016 @ 7:15 am | Reply

  192. It is nice but, I want some more information duddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd

    Comment by lucky — October 12, 2016 @ 3:06 pm | Reply

  193. This is awesome

    Comment by asutosh — December 11, 2016 @ 12:02 pm | Reply

  194. not so helpful for a 6 standard boy like me

    Comment by titus — December 22, 2016 @ 3:27 pm | Reply

  195. Ausome outstanding good for projects

    Comment by Keertana — January 11, 2017 @ 10:26 am | Reply

  196. wow it was just awesome

    Comment by Aditi — June 2, 2017 @ 3:38 am | Reply

  197. it was very helpful to me for my sst project

    Comment by aditya choudhary — August 27, 2017 @ 2:50 pm | Reply

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