Environment of Earth

March 9, 2008

Climatic indices and biogeographical zones


Radiation balance (source of heat energy)

Radiation index of dryness (moisture conditions)

Less than 0 (Highly excessive moisture)

Between 0 and 1.0

Excessive moisture

Optimal moisture

Moderate dryness

Dryness

Excessive dryness

0 – 0.2

0.2 – 0.4

0.4 – 0.6

0.6 – 0.8

0.8 – 1.0

1.0 – 2.0

2.0 – 3.0

> 3.0

< 0 (High altitude)

I

Eternal snow

0 – 50 kcal/cm2/yr (South Arctic, sub-arctic and moderate latitudes)

IIa

Arctic desert

IIb

Tundra (with islands of sparse forests in south), bow forests in swampy areas

IIc

Northern and middle taiga

IId

Southern taiga and mixed forests

IIe

Deciduous forests and forest-steppe

III

Steppes

IV

Semi-deserts in temperate belts

V

Deserts in temperate belts

50 – 75 kcal/cm2/yr

(Subtropics)

VIa

Regions of subtropical semi-gilei with large swamp areas

VIb

Subtropical rain-forests

VII

Hard-leaved subtropical forests & brush, deciduous forests

VIII

Subtropical semi-deserts

IX

Sub-tropical deserts

> 75 kcal/cm2/yr

(Tropics)

Xa

Regions of equatorial forest swamps

Xb

High humidity equatorial forests with major swamps

Xc

Moderate humidity equatorial forests with moderate swamps

Xd

Equatorial forests, passing to light lropical & deciduous savannahs

XI

Arid savannahs, deciduous forests

XII

Semi-desert savannahs (tropical semi-deserts)

XIII

Tropical deserts

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